Future human moon missions will be preceded by robotic reconnaissance launches, between andto scout landing sites that may have the most resources available to astronauts.
First astronomical body space explorations[ edit ] The first artificial object to reach another celestial body was Luna 2 reaching the Moon in The other planets were first flown by in for Mars by Mariner 4for Jupiter by Pioneer 10for Mercury by Mariner 10for Saturn by Pioneer 11for Uranus by Voyager 2for Neptune by Voyager 2.
The program also aims to put human beings on the surface of Mars by the s. Astronauts John W.
The International Space Station is currently the only fully functional space station, with continuous inhabitance since the year A New Spacecraft These new NASA missions are being spearheaded by the development of a state-of-the-art new spacecraft—but one with a retro feel.
There were challenges and setbacks, such as a fire that killed three Apollo 1 astronautsbut bythe agency sent astronauts around the moon, with Apollo 8. Inthe dwarf planets Ceres and Pluto were orbited by Dawn and passed by New Horizonsrespectively.
The Soviet Union achieved many of the first milestones, including putting the first man in space, Yuri Gagarin aboard Vostok 1 inand completing the first spacewalk by Aleksei Leonov in China became the third nation to independently launch a human into orbit in and its capabilities have since grown.
Voyager 1 is currently at a distance of Analysis of the radio signals was used to gather information about the electron density of the ionosphere, while temperature and pressure data was encoded in the duration of radio beeps.