The appendicular skeleton
Each toe consists of three phalanges, except for the big toe that has only two Figure 5.
They support the muscles crossing the shoulder joint. Each digit consists of three phalanges, except for the thumb, which, when present, has only two.
The appendicular skeleton review sheet
The appendicular skeleton is composed of the bones of the pectoral limbs arm, forearm, hand , the pelvic limbs thigh, leg, foot , the pectoral girdle, and the pelvic girdle. The pelvis has 2 bones: The left and right hip bone 2. Provided by: Wiktionary. The bones of the skeleton also serve as the primary storage site for important minerals such as calcium and phosphate. The Pectoral Girdle The pectoral girdle bones, providing the points of attachment of the upper limbs to the axial skeleton, consists of the clavicle or collarbone in the anterior, as well as the scapula or shoulder blades in the posterior. The phalanges are the 14 bones of the toes. By placement underneath the body, limbs can swing forward like a pendulum to produce a stride that is more efficient for moving over land.
The appendicular skeleton is composed of the bones of the pectoral limbs arm, forearm, handthe pelvic limbs thigh, leg, footthe pectoral girdle, and the pelvic girdle. The humerus is the largest and longest bone of the upper limb and the only bone of the arm.
The appendicular skeleton
The radius, located along the lateral thumb side of the forearm, articulates with the humerus at the elbow. The fibula, or calf bone, parallels and articulates with the tibia. It does not articulate with the femur and does not bear weight. Younger individuals have higher numbers of bones because some bones fuse together during childhood and adolescence. Each toe consists of three phalanges, except for the big toe that has only two Figure 5. Authored by: Boundless. The pelvic girdle is further strengthened by two large hip bones. Provided by: Wiktionary. The patella is embedded in the tendon of the femoral extensors quadriceps.
The spine runs across the back of the scapula; it is a good example of a bony protrusion that facilitates a broad area of attachment for muscles to bone. The vertebrae of the neck also evolved to allow movement of the head independently of the body. It articulates with the humerus at the elbow.
The Pelvic Girdle The pelvic girdle attaches to the lower limbs of the axial skeleton.
The fibula, or calf bone, parallels and articulates with the tibia. These bones are fairly fragile and are susceptible to fractures. The tarsals are the seven bones of the ankle, which transmits the weight of the body from the tibia and the fibula to the foot.
Unlike the axial skeleton, the appendicular skeleton is unfused.
Lateral undulations of land animal vertebral columns cause torsional strain. For example, a fall with the arms outstretched causes the force to be transmitted to the clavicles, which can break if the force is excessive.
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