Englewood Cliffs, NJ: 44 Spring Frey, Albert W.
A great many authors, though still using the His 4P formula discerned four classes, Product, Price, catch-all category of sales promotion within Mc- Place, and Promotion, Promotion itself being split into Carthy's 4P-classification, tried to define it not in a advertising, personal selling, publicity in the sense of free advertisingand sales promotion.
Chicago: Science Research Associates. The matrix representation in Table 1 illus- trates this idea.
New York: Beem, Eugene R. TheyfurtherthankProfessorsJacquesde Rijcke,Els ing mix, not only to stimulate conceptual integration PeterLeeflang, Gijsbrechts, andJos VanAcker, as wellas threeanon- and purification of the discipline, but also for mean- ymousJMreviewers, forhelpfulcomments on previousdrafts.
London: The Sales Machine. It is purely about the functional and aesthetic-al characteristics such as dimensions, function and life.
Hence, before presenting an improved clas- Mokwa ; Fullbrookp. A defendable first criterionfor Shaffer Hence, as an operationalyardstickin the classification process, it might provoke intersubjec- Marketing Mix tive ambiguityand result in low interjudgereliability.
Wales, and Martin R. A marketingmix clas- concept of sales promotion, we now move the argu- sification in our view shouldexplicitly make clear that ment one step forwardby exploring the link between it tries to schematize all the controllabledemand-im- sales promotion and generic marketing functions.
Planning In the long term all four variables can be adjusted by marketeers.