A brief historical overview of supervision
Role of supervision and inspection
The supervisory system might cycle teachers with professional status through a three-to five-year period, during which they would receive a formal evaluation once and a variety of other evaluative processes during the other years e. In the third edition of his book, Public School Administration , Cubberley provided specific examples of how a scientific approach could be applied when visiting teachers' classrooms. Larger schools, for example, had a number of special supervisors in each major subject area. To confront the large agenda of school renewal in which schools are required to respond to state-imposed curriculum standards or guidelines , systems of supervision at the state level, the district level, and the school level need to coordinate goals and priorities. Taylor's ideas resonated with engineers and business owners, and colleges of engineering and business were well positioned to infuse his principles into their courses. Supervisors and teachers are expected to take responsibility for high quality learning for all students, a responsibility that necessarily changes how they approach their work together. To this extent, their emphasis was on data with which to make decisions about future actions. Another issue needing attention is the divide between those supervisors who accept a functionalist, decontextualized, and oversimplified realist view of knowledge as something to be delivered, and those who approach knowledge as something to be actively constructed and performed by learners in realistic contexts—and as something whose integrity implies a moral as well as a cognitive appropriation. For example, principals, acting as "instructional leaders," could simply include a concern for quality learning and teaching under the rubric of instructional leadership and eliminate the use of the word supervision from their vocabulary. To some extent, this was a false dichotomy. Principals and assistant principals also supervise the work and the behavior of students in the school.
Sergiovanni and Starratt also attempted to open the work of supervision to intentional involvement with the schoolwide renewal agenda, thus placing all stimuli toward professional growth—including the supervisory system—within that larger context.
Assumptions about the nature of knowledge and its appropriation, often unspoken, substantially affect how supervisors and teachers approach student learning and teaching protocols.
Historical perspectives on supervision in education
Along with this trend comes an increasing differentiation in the available options by which teacher supervision may be conducted, thus leaving the more formal assessment for experienced teachers to once every four or five years. Download Printable PDF. Principals and assistant principals also supervise the work and the behavior of students in the school. The prototypical 19th century school was a small, one-room schoolhouse. What is Supervision? As the relationships between students become more governed by legal restrictions—including definitions of racial, ethnic, and sexual harassment, of due process, of privacy and free speech rights—and as the incidents of physical violence, bullying, carrying of weapons to school, and the extreme cases of students killing other students increase, this aspect of supervision becomes increasingly complex. Cogan insisted on a collegial relationship focused on the teacher's interest in improving student learning, and on a nonjudgmental observation and inquiry process. Initially developed by Harvard professors Morris Cogan and Robert Anderson and their graduate students, many of whom subsequently became professors of supervision in other universities, clinical supervision blended elements of "objective" and "scientific" classroom observation with aspects of collegial coaching, rational planning, and a flexible, inquiry-based concern with student learning. The January issue of Educational Leadership magazine, published only a few months after the conclusion of World War II, reflects this shift. There are a variety of issues in the field of supervision that need resolution—or at least significant attention.
Early towns in the United States turned to existing power structures, such as local government and the clergy, to hire teachers and make judgments about their teaching.
January - January Supervision has a Medieval Latin origin. Nevertheless, in many academic circles the original dialogic and reflective process of Cogan and Goldhammer continued as the preferred process of supervision.
There are a variety of issues in the field of supervision that need resolution—or at least significant attention. Clergy were considered logical choices for this role because of their extensive education and presumed ability to guide religious instruction in schools Tracy,p.
A brief historical overview of supervision
The presented review begins with a brief historical overview of theoretical approaches to instructional supervision. Nevertheless, in many academic circles the original dialogic and reflective process of Cogan and Goldhammer continued as the preferred process of supervision. The directive and inspectional practices in supervising instruction once again find likely justification within this neo-liberal movement to disenfranchise education from educators and institute a rigid system of accountability that stifles teacher creativity and student learning that is enjoyable and meaningful. How so? Working with groups of teachers to adapt the local curriculum to the needs and abilities of diverse groups of students, while at the same time bringing the local curriculum in line with state and national standards. My experience has been remarkably positive largely due to the administration. In some districts, these judgments have led to serious efforts at professional development. A related issue concerns the degree to which schools and classrooms will accommodate cultural, class, gender, racial, and intellectual diversity. Educational Philosophy is no exception.
The transition that Glickman and the authors of this comprehensive account of supervision envisioned was one that valued collegiality. To this extent, their emphasis was on data with which to make decisions about future actions. He recommended three components as the basis for scientific supervision: the use of aptitude tests to determine the ability level of each child; the establishment of clear, measurable objectives for each course; and the use of reliable measures of student learning.
He argued that if there were ways to perform a task, some methods would be more efficient than others. A rising industrial base and the common schooling movement that extended through the s spawned large urban areas with more complex school systems.
Concept of supervision
Though by and large supervisory visits occurred once a year. Because there was no necessary agreement as to the importance or nature of pedagogical expertise, the quality and type of feedback to teachers was highly varied. By the mids, the view of teaching was that it was a complex endeavor requiring complex feedback if expertise was to be fostered. The politics of school renewal tend to lend a punitive, judgmental edge to supervision at the state level, and to some degree at the district level, and that impression poisons supervision at the school level. Assumptions about the nature of knowledge and its appropriation, often unspoken, substantially affect how supervisors and teachers approach student learning and teaching protocols. Four basic principles were evident: 1 stronger accountability for results, 2 increased flexibility and local control, 3 expanded options for parents, and 4 an emphasis on teaching methods that presumably have been proven to work. Their methods of supervision stressed strict control and close inspection of school facilities. Thus, the supervisory episode tends to focus more on an analysis of teaching activity only in relation to, rather than independent of, evidence of student learning. This focus on student learning in supervision is further influenced by the trend to highlight the learning of previously underserved students, namely those with special needs and consistently low-performing students. In Robert Goldhammer proposed the following five-stage process in clinical supervision: 1 a pre-observation conference between supervisor and teacher concerning elements of the lesson to be observed; 2 classroom observation; 3 a supervisor's analysis of notes from the observation, and planning for the post-observation conference; 4 a post-observation conference between supervisor and teacher; and 5 a supervisor's analysis of the post-observation conference. For instance, Balliet , a superintendent from Massachusetts, insisted that there were only two types of teachers: the efficient and the inefficient. Download Printable PDF. One can use data for feedback but still maintain the goal of an education system that fosters democratic ideals. One teacher within a building was often selected to assume administrative duties.
The teacher was considered a servant of the community. The prototypical 19th century school was a small, one-room schoolhouse. Told her how she should handle such work, and gave her Newcomb's Modern Methods of Teaching Arithmetic to take home and read designated chapters.
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